top of page

Decision, Destiny, or Lottery? What Shaped Our Past, Shapes Our Present, and Will Shape Our Future?

1. Introduction


In the vast tapestry of existence, every individual thread weaves a story of choices, chances, and fate. The age-old debate of destiny versus free will has been a cornerstone of philosophical discourse for millennia. But as we stand on the precipice of scientific breakthroughs and explore concepts like the multiverse, we're compelled to ask: Are our lives a result of deliberate decisions, the unpredictable lottery of existence, a preordained destiny, or perhaps, echoes of choices made in parallel universes?


The paradoxical nature of decision-making lies in the tension between the present and the future, between free will and perceived destiny. The idea behind the multiverse theory, particularly the Many-Worlds Interpretation (MWI) of quantum mechanics, is that every decision we make creates a branching point in the universe. Each choice leads to a separate universe where a different decision was made.


Dive into this exploration to gain insights that can empower your decision-making, enhance your mental well-being, and provide a fresh perspective on life's big questions. This post also explores the complex relationship between decisions, destiny, and chance through the lives of three iconic figures, which hopefully could inspire us to reflect from their journeys and learn from their experiences so that we can make accountable decisions for ourselves and be more content with our lives. We are not alone on our own journeys!



Illustrative of Unknown Destination - Decision, Destiny, Chane/Lottery?
Destination Unknown


Defining Our Terms in the Realm of Decision-Making


It is crucial to establish a common understanding of the key concepts we'll be discussing. The realms of decisions, destiny, chance, and the multiverse are vast and can be interpreted in myriad ways. By defining these terms within the context of decision-making, we aim to provide a clear framework for our discussion, ensuring that we're all on the same page. These definitions will serve as touchstones, guiding us through the intricate interplay of choices, fate, randomness, and the possibilities of parallel universes.


Decision:

  • Definition: A conscious choice made from among available options, influenced by one's beliefs, experiences, and external factors.

  • In the Context of Decision-Making: Decisions represent our agency and free will. They are the crossroads where we actively shape our paths, determining the course of events based on our judgments and preferences.

Destiny:

  • Definition: A predetermined course of events often perceived as an inevitable or unchangeable outcome.

  • In the Context of Decision-Making: Destiny suggests that even our decisions, which we perceive as acts of free will, are part of a larger, preordained narrative. It challenges the notion of agency by proposing that every choice we make has been set in motion by prior events, making our life's journey a fulfillment of this predetermined path.

Lottery/Chances:

  • Definition: The unpredictable and seemingly random convergence of external events and circumstances that lead to a particular outcome.

  • In the Context of Decision-Making: The "lottery" represents the interplay of situational factors and predestined events. While we might perceive certain outcomes as random or chance-driven, this perspective suggests that these outcomes are the result of larger forces at play, where individual decisions are often overshadowed. In this view, the actor (the human) becomes a player in a grander scheme, where the event's occurrence is inevitable, regardless of individual choices.

Multiverse:

  • Definition: A hypothetical set of multiple universes, including our own, where every possible historical event has taken place.

  • In the Context of Decision-Making: The multiverse theory, especially the Many-Worlds Interpretation, suggests that every decision we make branches off into a separate universe. It challenges traditional notions of linear decision-making and destiny by proposing that all possible outcomes of a decision exist in parallel universes.


2. Lessons from three iconic figures and their unique path of life

In the vast annals of history, countless individuals have left indelible marks on the world. So, why focus on Einstein, Hitler, and Muhammad Ali? Each of these figures, in their unique ways, encapsulates the intricate dance of decisions, destiny, and chance. Einstein's groundbreaking scientific discoveries, Hitler's unparalleled impact on the geopolitical landscape, and Ali's transcendent influence both inside and outside the boxing ring make them compelling subjects of study. Their lives, filled with pivotal moments, audacious decisions, and twists of fate, offer rich tapestries to explore our central themes. Through their stories, we aim to illuminate the broader forces at play in all our lives. 1. Albert Einstein:

  • Decisions: From his audacious decision to question the very fabric of space and time to his personal choices, like leaving Germany amidst rising tensions, Einstein's decisions undeniably shaped his path and, consequently, the trajectory of science.

  • Destiny: Born in an era of scientific upheaval, Einstein's innate curiosity and rebellious nature seemed to align with the cosmos, leading him to revolutionize our understanding of the universe. Was it destiny that he would challenge and change the paradigms of physics?

  • Lottery: The serendipity of his birth era, combined with the scientific questions of the time, like the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment, set the stage for his groundbreaking work on relativity. Was it mere chance?

  • Multiverse: In the sprawling landscape of the multiverse, could there be a reality where Einstein pursued his love for music, leaving the mysteries of the universe for another mind to unravel?

2. Adolf Hitler:

  • Decisions: Hitler's ascent to power, his ideologies, and his wartime strategies were a culmination of deliberate decisions, each altering the course of the 20th century.

  • Destiny: The socio-political climate of post-WWI Germany was a tinderbox, awaiting a spark. Was Hitler the inevitable flame, or could history have swerved on a different path?

  • Lottery: Historical events, like the Treaty of Versailles, which sowed seeds of resentment, or the failed assassination attempts on Hitler, played pivotal roles in shaping his trajectory. Was it the unpredictable lottery of circumstances?

  • Multiverse: Could there be a universe where Hitler's artistic aspirations were realized, leading him down a vastly different path and changing the face of history?

3. Muhammad Ali:

  • Decisions: From his decision to convert to Islam to his stance against the Vietnam War draft, Ali's choices resonated far beyond the boxing ring, influencing societal perspectives and discussions.

  • Destiny: Ali's unparalleled prowess in the boxing ring, combined with his charisma, seemed to suggest a destiny of greatness. Was he always meant to be "The Greatest"?

  • Lottery: Born during the Civil Rights Movement in the U.S., Ali's voice and actions were amplified by the era's struggles and aspirations. Was it chance that magnified his impact?

  • Multiverse: In a realm of infinite possibilities, might there be a Muhammad Ali who chose a different sport, or perhaps used his magnetic presence in politics or activism in another way?

Their stories, while unique, echo the broader human experience, reminding us of the myriad forces that shape our paths. As we reflect on their journeys, we're invited to ponder our own choices, the role of fate in our lives, and the infinite possibilities that lie ahead. In understanding their stories, we gain insights into our own, realizing that while our paths may differ, the quest for meaning, purpose, and understanding is a shared endeavor.


3. Historical Context


Throughout history, civilizations have grappled with questions about destiny, free will, chance, and, more recently, the concept of the multiverse. These inquiries have shaped cultural narratives, religious doctrines, and philosophical discourses, revealing a deep human desire to understand our place in the cosmos.


Ancient Civilizations:

  • Greeks: The ancient Greeks often depicted fate as an immutable force, even above the gods. The Moirai, or the Fates, were three goddesses who spun, measured, and cut the thread of life. However, Greek tragedies, like those of Sophocles, also explored the tension between fate and free will.

  • Native American Tribes: Different tribes had varied beliefs, but many shared a reverence for nature and saw it as a guiding force. The concept of the "Great Spirit" in some tribes can be likened to a form of destiny, guiding and watching over all. Personal choices were often made in harmony with nature and the community's greater good.

  • Mayans: The Mayans believed in a cyclical nature of time, with calendars that predicted natural and societal events. They believed that the gods had set certain events in motion, and rituals and ceremonies were performed to ensure favorable outcomes. While there was a strong sense of preordained destiny, the Mayans also believed in the power of human actions to appease or communicate with the gods.

  • Ancient Egyptians: The Egyptians believed in the concept of "Ma'at," which represented truth, balance, and order. It was both a goddess and an idea, suggesting a cosmic order that all things adhered to. The weighing of the heart ceremony in the afterlife was a test of one's adherence to Ma'at, blending the ideas of destiny (the cosmic order) and individual choices (actions during one's life).

  • Mesopotamians: Ancient civilizations like the Sumerians and Babylonians believed in a pantheon of gods who controlled various aspects of nature and human life. Destiny was often seen as the will of these gods, but there were also myths and epics, like the Epic of Gilgamesh, that explored themes of human agency, fate, and the quest for immortality.

Eastern Philosophies:

  • Hinduism: The concept of karma in Hindu philosophy suggests a cause-and-effect relationship where actions, whether good or bad, influence one's future. While there's an element of destiny in the cycles of birth and rebirth, there's also an emphasis on individual agency in shaping one's path.

  • Daoism: This Chinese philosophy emphasizes harmony with the Dao, a fundamental principle that is the source of all existence. While there's an acceptance of the natural flow of events, there's also a belief in aligning one's actions with this cosmic order.

  • Buddhism: The idea of dependent origination in Buddhism suggests that all events are interconnected and arise based on certain conditions. It's a nuanced view that intertwines fate with individual actions.

Abrahamic Religions:

  • Judaism: The concept of divine providence in Judaism suggests that God has a plan for the universe, but this coexists with the emphasis on human free will, especially in making moral choices.

  • Christianity: The debate between predestination and free will has been a central theological discussion. While some denominations believe in predetermined salvation, others emphasize human free will and personal relationship with God.

  • Islam: The concept of "Qada & Qadr", one of the six pillars of faith in Islam, suggests divine preordainment, but it coexists with the idea of human free will. The balance between destiny and individual choice is a recurring theme in Islamic theology. For Moslems, it is important to believe in "Qada & Qadr" because it helps us to maintain a sense of peace and tranquility in our lives.

Modern Interpretations:

  • Atheism: Atheists, who don't believe in divine beings, often emphasize the role of individual agency, chance, and the laws of nature in shaping events. The perspective on destiny and free will varies among atheists, but without the theological framework, the emphasis is often on human autonomy and the randomness of the universe.

  • Existentialism: Philosophers like Jean-Paul Sartre and Friedrich Nietzsche emphasized individual agency, freedom, and authenticity. They proposed that humans create their own meaning and essence through their choices, regardless of divine plans or preordained destinies.

  • Multiverse Theories: With advancements in quantum mechanics, the idea of a multiverse has gained traction. The Many-Worlds Interpretation suggests that every decision branches off into multiple universes, adding a new dimension to the age-old debates of destiny and free will.

Until this point of our journey of this post, we find ourselves at the crossroads of destiny, decision, and chance. These age-old debates resonate with our own personal quests for meaning and understanding. How much of our path is preordained by the stars, shaped by our choices, or left to the whims of chance? As we stand on the shoulders of giants, gazing into the vast expanse of history and thought, we're invited to turn the lens inward. In the grand narrative of existence, where do you see yourself? And more importantly, where will you choose to go next?


4. Science Elaboration: Deciphering Destiny, Decisions, and Lottery/Chance


Opening: The Two Major Frameworks

In our pursuit to understand the intricate interplay of destiny, decisions, and chance, science offers a myriad of perspectives that can sometimes seem overwhelming. We could categorize these perspectives into two major frameworks based on their approach to the flow of time and the nature of reality. On one hand, tracing the trajectory of our known universe, we have the Singular Historical Temporal Framework, which operates within the confines of our known universe and its unique timeline. It emphasizes the interplay of predetermined factors and individual agency, drawing from fields like neuroscience, genetics, and the study of causality. On the other hand, beckons us into the vast unknown, the Cosmological-Multiverse Framework expands our horizons, suggesting the possibility of multiple universes, each with its own distinct history and set of rules. By splitting our exploration into these two frameworks, we can embark on a structured journey through the vast landscape of scientific thought on destiny and decision-making


1. Technological Singularity - Singular Historical Temporal Framework:


This framework focuses on the trajectory of our own universe, emphasizing the interplay of predetermined factors and individual agency within a singular timeline. It encompasses concepts from neuroscience, genetics, the ripple and butterfly effects, and the looming presence of Artificial Intelligence (AI).


Neuroscience and Decision-Making: The Brain's Tug-of-War

When faced with a choice, our brain becomes a battleground between emotion and logic. The prefrontal cortex, responsible for rational thinking, often competes with the amygdala, our emotional center. But is this dance of neurons truly free will, or just a predetermined neural pathway lighting up?

Recent studies in neuroscience have shown that our brain might make a decision before we're even consciously aware of it. This challenges traditional notions of free will and suggests that our choices might be more influenced by subconscious processes than we think. While there's evidence supporting this idea, the exact mechanisms, implications, and extent to which this occurs are still topics of active research.


Genetics and Destiny: The Blueprint of Life

Our DNA carries the blueprint of our traits, predispositions, and, to some extent, our fate. While genes can determine aspects like height, eye color, and certain health risks, the environment plays a crucial role in shaping us.

The age-old debate of nature vs. nurture highlights the interplay between our genetic destiny and the influence of external factors. It's a reminder that while some aspects of our lives might be written in our genes, many chapters are yet to be penned, influenced by our decisions and experiences.


The Butterfly Effect: When a Flutter Becomes a Storm

Originating from chaos theory, the Butterfly Effect posits that a small change in one state of a deterministic system can result in vast differences in a later state. Think of it as a snowball effect; a tiny snowflake can trigger an avalanche in the right conditions.

This concept has profound implications for decision-making. It suggests that even seemingly insignificant choices can have monumental impacts over time. In a world interconnected by technology and globalization, the ripple effects of our actions are more pronounced than ever.


Ripple Effects in Social Sciences: The Echoes of Our Actions

Every decision we make sends ripples through our social networks. From viral trends to the spread of information, our interconnected world amplifies the consequences of individual actions.

Research in social sciences has shown how behaviors, beliefs, and even emotions can spread through networks, much like waves in a pond. This interconnectedness means that our choices, whether big or small, can influence countless others, often in ways we might not even realize.


The Pros and Cons of Singular Historical Temporal Framework-Technological Singularity


Pros:

  • Direct Relevance: Concepts within this framework are immediately relevant to our daily lives and decisions.

  • Empirical Evidence: Many of the concepts, especially in neuroscience and genetics, are backed by extensive research and empirical data.

  • Addresses Personal Agency: Emphasizes the role of individual decisions within the larger context of predetermined factors.

Cons:

  • Limited Scope: Only considers the trajectory of our known universe and its singular timeline.

  • Complex Interactions: The interplay between genetics, environment, and individual decisions can be intricate and challenging to decipher.


As we navigate the Singular Historical Temporal Framework, one cannot overlook the looming presence of artificial intelligence (AI) and its rapid advancement. The pace at which AI is evolving is staggering, and it's not just about machines performing tasks faster and more accurately than humans. We're on the cusp of AI systems that can think, learn, and even make decisions in ways that are eerily reminiscent of human cognition. This leads us to the concept of the "technological singularity" — a hypothetical point in the not-so-distant future where AI will surpass human intelligence, potentially becoming the dominant form of cognitive entity on our planet. What happens when machines start making decisions for us, or even more provocatively, about us? Will they adhere to our moral and ethical standards, or will they forge their own path, reshaping our singular historical timeline in ways we can't even fathom? The implications are profound, challenging our very notions of agency, destiny, and the essence of what it means to be human.


2. Cosmological Singularity -Multiverse Framework:


This framework delves into the vast expanse of the universe, exploring the possibility of multiple universes and the concept of cosmological singularities. It introduces the idea that every decision or quantum event might spawn a new universe where a different outcome occurs.

  • Cosmological Singularity: Refers to points of infinite density in the universe, such as the center of black holes or the origin point of the Big Bang. Some theories even suggest that the singularity of a black hole could be a gateway to another universe or dimension.

  • Multiverse Theory: Posits the existence of multiple, possibly infinite, universes, each with its own unique timeline and history. Imagine a cosmic tree with countless branches, each representing a different universe with its own set of physical laws, histories, and futures.

  • Quantum Mechanics and the Multiverse: Infinite Possibilities: The realm of quantum mechanics introduces mind-bending concepts that challenge our understanding of reality. The Many-Worlds Interpretation suggests that with every quantum event, the universe branches off, creating parallel universes for every possible outcome. If this interpretation holds, it means that every decision we make creates a branching point, leading to a universe where a different choice was made. It's a tantalizing thought: for every path taken, countless others exist in parallel realms.

  • Implications of the Multiverse: If the multiverse theory is accurate, it reshapes our understanding of destiny and decision-making. In one universe, you might be a renowned scientist, while in another, you could be a world-famous musician. Every dream, every possibility, every potential reality could exist somewhere in the vast multiverse. It brings forth the question: Are we bound by a singular destiny, or do we exist in infinite forms, each shaped by different choices and circumstances?

The Cosmological Singularity-Multiverse Framework offers a mesmerizing perspective on existence, suggesting that our reality is just one of countless others, each with its own stories, challenges, and destinies.


The Pros and Cons of Cosmological Singularity -Multiverse Framework


Pros:

  • Expansive Scope: Provides a broad perspective on existence, allowing for countless possibilities and scenarios.

  • Addresses Fundamental Questions: Tackles deep questions about the nature of reality, the origins of the universe, and the potential existence of parallel universes.

  • Potential for New Discoveries: The multiverse theory, if proven, could revolutionize our understanding of physics and the cosmos.

Cons:

  • Limited Empirical Evidence: Current scientific tools and methods can't definitively prove the existence of other universes.

  • Complexity: The concepts within this framework can be abstract and challenging to grasp, making it less accessible to the general public.


To wrap up our exploration of the Cosmological Singularity-Multiverse Framework, one can't help but wonder: With the infinite possibilities the multiverse presents, are there versions of us out there making better life choices? Maybe in one universe, you remembered to take out the trash this morning, or in another, you finally became that rockstar astronaut cowboy you always dreamed of. So, the next time you misplace your keys or forget an anniversary, take solace in the thought that there might just be billions of twin brothers and sisters in other universes who remembered. And hey, if they can do it, so can you... in this universe or the next!


Mapping Scientific Advancements with Historical Context

Science and religion, often perceived as opposing forces, have a complex relationship. While some religious beliefs might seem at odds with scientific theories, many spiritual teachings resonate with the mysteries that science seeks to unravel.

  • Singular Historical Temporal Framework: Many religious beliefs emphasize the importance of individual decisions and their consequences, aligning with the ripple and butterfly effects. The idea of a predetermined destiny, as seen in genetics, also finds echoes in religious teachings about fate.

  • Cosmological-Multiverse Framework: The concept of multiple realms or worlds is not alien to many religious texts. While the scientific idea of parallel universes might not directly correlate with religious teachings, the notion of multiple realities or realms is a recurring theme in many spiritual traditions.

In essence, while there are areas of divergence, there's also a profound confluence between scientific theories and religious beliefs. The key lies in interpretation and the willingness to explore intersections rather than contradictions.

As we stand at the crossroads of science and spirituality, of known truths and infinite possibilities, one can't help but wonder: In a universe (or multiverse) so vast and mysterious, what's our role? Are we mere pawns in a cosmic game, or do we hold the power to shape our destinies? Perhaps, in another universe, you're pondering the same questions, but with a different set of answers. So, as you navigate the maze of life, remember to occasionally look up at the stars, laugh at the absurdities, and cherish the journey.


After all, somewhere in a parallel universe, another version of you might be doing just that... but with a different set of priorities. Maybe they're focused on material possessions, like a fancy car or a big house. Or maybe they're focused on spiritual matters, like enlightenment or inner peace. But no matter what their priorities are, they're still you. And they're still on their own unique journey through life.


Interplay of Forces: Decisions, Destiny, Chance, and the Multiverse


In the intricate tapestry of life, various forces interweave to shape our experiences, choices, and outcomes. Understanding their interplay can offer insights into our own journeys and the broader universe.

  1. Decision & Destiny: How much of our path is determined by our conscious choices, and how much is preordained? Can our decisions alter what seems to be our destined path?

  2. Decision & Chance: While we make decisions based on available information and our desires, chance events can unexpectedly alter outcomes. How do we navigate decisions when unpredictable elements come into play?

  3. Decision & Multiverse: Every decision potentially creates a branching point in the multiverse. How does this perspective influence our decision-making process, knowing that every choice might exist in some parallel universe?

  4. Destiny & Chance: If certain events are destined to happen, how does chance play a role? Can random events alter our destiny, or are they part of the larger tapestry of our predetermined path?

  5. Destiny & Multiverse: In the vast expanse of the multiverse, is there a universe where our destiny unfolds exactly as we imagine? Or are there countless versions of our destiny across different universes?

  6. Chance & Multiverse: Random events that change the course of our lives might lead to the creation of alternate universes. How does the multiverse theory account for the randomness and unpredictability of chance?

The Illusion of Singular Mental Frames:

Our minds, in an attempt to make sense of the vast complexities of life, often create mental models or frameworks. These models, while useful, can sometimes trap us in limited perspectives. Leaning too heavily on one frame, be it destiny, decision, chance, or the multiverse, can skew our perceptions and actions.

  • Overthinking & Overaction: An excessive focus on the power and consequences of decisions can lead to analysis paralysis. The fear of making the wrong choice, especially when considering the vast implications of the multiverse, can result in overthinking and, at times, rash actions.

  • Inaction: On the other hand, an unwavering belief in destiny or the randomness of chance can lead to passivity. If everything is preordained or left to random events, why make an effort?


The Balance: Striking a balance between actively shaping our destiny and accepting the uncontrollable is a delicate act. Recognizing the influence of chance, while also acknowledging the power of individual agency, can lead to a harmonious understanding of our place in the universe (or multiverses).


Practical Implications: Navigating Ourselves to Make Informed Decisions in a World of Uncertainty


With a grasp on these forces, how can we apply this understanding to our daily lives? How can we navigate the uncertainties, make informed decisions, and find peace amidst the infinite possibilities?


Mental Well-being: Manage Stress and Anxiety:

Recognizing the vastness of the multiverse and the myriad paths our lives could take can be both awe-inspiring and overwhelming. Grounding ourselves in the present, cherishing the moments, and practicing mindfulness can help anchor our mental well-being.


Decision-making in Uncertainty: Making Tough Decision

Embracing the idea of infinite realities can reshape our approach to decision-making. Instead of agonizing over the "right" choice, we can focus on making the best decision with the information at hand, knowing that in some universe, every choice has been explored.


Coping Mechanisms: Find Peace and Tranquility of Mind

The weight of existential thoughts, especially when pondering the multiverse, can be heavy. Finding coping mechanisms, whether it's through meditation, discussions, or immersing oneself in nature, can offer solace. Remember, while the universe(s) might be vast, our experiences, emotions, and connections are what give life meaning.

Reflecting on the journeys of Einstein, Hitler, and Muhammad Ali, we can draw several insights:

  1. Einstein: His journey exemplifies the power of curiosity, persistence, and challenging the status quo. While he faced many challenges, his "decisions?" to persevere and explore the unknown led to groundbreaking discoveries. It's a testament to the idea that our decisions, combined with a touch of destiny (being in the right place at the right time), can lead to monumental impacts.

  2. Hitler: A controversial figure whose "decisions?" led to widespread devastation. His life serves as a cautionary tale about the consequences of unchecked ambition, the influence of external factors (like societal conditions), and the ripple effects of individual choices. It's a stark reminder of the balance between personal decisions and the larger forces of destiny or chance.

  3. Muhammad Ali: His story is one of conviction, resilience, and self-belief. Ali's "decisions?", both inside and outside the ring, were influenced by his personal beliefs, societal pressures, and a sense of destiny. His journey underscores the interplay of personal decisions, destiny, and the uncontrollable elements of chance.

Personal Reflection:

Life is a tapestry of moments, decisions, and influences. Looking back at my own journey, I'm reminded of the pivotal role my late father played in shaping my mentality. His value, wisdom and teachings, coupled with the nurturing embrace of my mother, and support of family and friends, laid the foundation for the person I am today.


Like everyone, I've made decisions I regret. Moments I wish I could revisit and choices I'd reconsider if given a chance. But as time moves forward, so do I. The idea of a time machine, while tantalizing, is a reminder that we can't change the past. Instead, we can learn, grow, and make better "decisions?" moving forward.


At times, life seemed to dance to my orchestrated tunes—blessed with normal childhood, good education, a fulfilling career—milestones I once attributed solely to my endeavors. However, my religious belief has been helping me to come to understand, to gently steered me towards a profound realization: the essence and the importance of gratitude and contentment. While regrets are a natural part of the human experience, focusing on the present and striving for a better future is where I find peace. In the vast expanse of the universe (or multiverse), our journeys, with all their ups and downs, are what give life meaning.

As we wrap up this exploration, remember that understanding these forces isn't just a philosophical exercise. It's a tool—a lens through which you can view life's challenges, decisions, and mysteries. By grasping these concepts, hopefully you're better equipped to navigate life with resilience, make informed decisions, and find solace in the vastness and beauty of existence. Ultimately, despite our journeys through known and unknown terrains, it's the pursuit of peace and tranquility that holds paramount value, especially when the "Destination is Unknown."


 

References:

  1. Everett, H. (1957). "Relative state formulation of quantum mechanics". Reviews of Modern Physics. This paper introduces the Many-Worlds Interpretation of quantum mechanics, which is foundational for discussions on the multiverse.

  2. Libet, B., Gleason, C. A., Wright, E. W., & Pearl, D. K. (1983). "Time of conscious intention to act in relation to onset of cerebral activity (readiness-potential) The unconscious initiation of a freely voluntary act". Brain. A seminal work in neuroscience that discusses the timing of conscious decisions.

  3. Dawkins, R. (2006). The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press. Discusses the role of genes in shaping behavior and the concept of "selfish" genes driving evolution.

  4. Lorenz, E. N. (1963). "Deterministic nonperiodic flow". Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. Introduces the concept of the butterfly effect in chaos theory.

  5. Greene, B. (2011). The Hidden Reality: Parallel Universes and the Deep Laws of the Cosmos. Vintage. A comprehensive exploration of the concept of the multiverse in modern physics.

  6. Pinker, S. (2002). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. Viking. Discusses the interplay of genetics and environment in shaping human behavior.

  7. Frankl, V. E. (1985). Man's Search for Meaning. Simon and Schuster. A reflection on finding purpose and meaning in life, even in the face of adversity.

  8. Shahar, N., Hauser, T., Moutoussis, M., Moran, R., Keramati, M., & Dolan, R. (2019). Improving the reliability of model-based decision-making estimates in the two-stage decision task with reaction-times and drift-diffusion modeling. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006803


Comments

Rated 0 out of 5 stars.
No ratings yet

Add a rating
bottom of page